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England is the largest and most populous home nation of the United Kingdom. It accounts for more than 83% of the total UK population, occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean and English Channel.
England is named after the Angles, one of a number of Germanic tribes believed to have originated in Angeln in northern Germany, who settled in England in the 5th and 6th centuries. This is also the origin of its Latin name Anglia. It has not had a distinct political identity since 1707, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain was established as a unified political entity; however, it has a legal identity separate from those of Scotland and Northern Ireland, as part of the entity "England and Wales". England's largest city, London, is also the capital of the United Kingdom.

Geography
 
A satellite view of England and Wales.
England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus offshore islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. It is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of Britain, divided from France only by a 38 km (24 statute mile or 21 nautical mile) sea gap.
Most of England consists of rolling hills, but it is more mountainous in the north with a chain of low mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west. The dividing line between terrain types is usually indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There is also an area of flat, low-lying marshland in the east, much of which has been drained for agricultural use.
The list of England's largest cities is much debated because in British English the normal meaning of city is "a continuously built-up urban area"; these are hard to define and various other definitions are preferred by some people to boost the ranking of their own city. London is by far the largest English city. Manchester and Birmingham vie for second place. A number of other cities, mainly in the north of England, are of substantial size and influence. These include: Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Nottingham, Bristol and Sheffield.
The Channel Tunnel, near Folkestone, links England to the European mainland. The English/French border is halfway along the tunnel.
The largest harbour in England is at Poole, on the south-central coast. Internationally, it is the second largest harbour in the world, although this fact is disputed (See harbours for a list of other potential second largest harbours).
[edit]
Climate
See main article: Climate of the United Kingdom
England has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round, though the seasons are quite variable in temperature. However, temperatures rarely fall below -5°C or rise above 30°C. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, bringing mild and wet weather to England regularly, from the Atlantic Ocean. It is driest in the east and warmest in the southeast, which is closest to the European continent. Snowfall can occur in Winter and early Spring, though it is not that common away from high ground.
The highest temperature ever recorded in England is 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on August 10, 2003 at Brogdale, near Faversham, in Kent. [1]. The lowest temperature ever recorded in England is -26.1 °C (-15.0 °F) on January 10, 1982 at Edgmond, near Newport, in Shropshire. [2]
England [1] is by far the largest of the four nations that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (together with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) - both in terms of surface area and population (about 50 million inhabitants out of about 60 million Britons).

Cities
England has a large number of cities, towns and villages. Listed below are nine of the greatest interest to travelers:
•London - the capital city of both England and the United Kingdom, a vast metropolitan area, and a global capital of finance, fashion and culture
•Bath - historical city, stunning Georgian architecture and Roman thermal baths.
•Birmingham - the UK's second largest city is located in the Industrial heartland and many attractions for the traveller, considered Britain's "second city". Once tagged as ugly, the city has been regenerated, becoming a multi-cultural, diverse city.
•Bristol - largest city in South England (after London), vibrant music scene, historic buildings
•Cambridge - a very green city (lots of parkland), home to the ancient university, close to Stansted Airport
•Manchester - Considered England's second city by many, a cultural, sporting, entertainment, shopping and media hub.
•Newcastle upon Tyne - the major city in the North East has re-invented itself: great for clubbing and makes the most of its river
•Oxford - historical city, location of the world renowned University of Oxford and the "Dreaming Spires"
•York - historic city with Roman and Viking remains
Climate
England's weather is highly changeable on a day-to-day basis, but has a quite small difference between average conditions on a seasonal level.
Northern and Western parts are usually wetter and colder than the rest of England, and the sunniest and warmest areas are in the far south.
Winter and autumn are usually the wettest seasons where the weather is often very changeable and at times quite windy, especially in the north and west. Summer is generally warm (20-25C) but be prepared for unsetlled weather at anytime of the year. Long, hot spells of weather can occur (especially in the south and east) with temperatures comparable to those found in the south of France or Spain. Winters are extremely mild for the latitude, with only occasional snow, with frosts being very rare in far south and western areas. While central Europe has far colder winters despite being further south, England is more influenced by the Gulf Stream - the UK is on the same latitude as Alaska, but has far warmer winters. The last few years have been very dry, which is causing water shortage problems - hosepipe bans and water meters have been introduced in many areas.
It is debatable whether the natives actually have a fondness for debating the weather - but any discussion that does involve weather usually includes critisisms of it - including both that it's "too cold" and it's "too hot".
Unusual weather conditions are rare, but can cause major problems. Dealing with these problems can take time, even though remedial action is usually taken very promptly. Flooding and the opposite, droughts, are the usual problems, although tornadoes and earthquakes are not unknown.

 

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